Immutable data types after .NET 5 release

Just couple weeks ago, Microsoft released RC of .NET 5 which is (unfortunately) not going to be an LTS (Long Term Support) release but on the other hand, it’s coming with some great features in it (yep yep).

One of them comes as a part of the new release of C# 9.0 (part of the .NET 5 release) which is Immutable Objects and Properties (records and init-only properties). Quite a smart concept in my opinion …

Recap on immutable data type

The immutable data type is basically data type of the variable of which the value cannot be changed after creation.

How does it look in reality?

Well, once immutable data typed object is created then only way how to change its value is to create a new one with a copied value of the previous instance.

What are the current immutable (and mostly used) data types from .NET CLR?

Primitive types

  • Byte and SByte
  • Int16 and UInt16
  • Int32 and UInt32
  • Int64 and UInt64
  • IntPtr
  • Single
  • Double
  • Decimal


  • All enumeration types (enum, Enum)
  • All delegate types
  • DateTime, TimeSpan and DateTimeOffset
  • DBNull
  • Guid
  • Nullable
  • String
  • Tuple<T>
  • Uri
  • Version
  • Void
  • Lookup<TKey, TElement>

As you can see, we have quite a few to choose from already. How this list is going to look like after .NET 5 full release in November 2020?

Well, it’s going to be a revolutionary change in my 2 cents.

Principally, any object using .NET 5 runtime (and C# 9.0) can be immutable and also implement its own immutable state – and that is HOT feature.

The syntax of the immutable properties looks like in this example:

public class ObjectName
    public string FirstProperty { get; init; }
    public string SecondProperty { get; init; }

On the other hand, the syntax of immutable object (called a record) looks this:

public data class ObjectName
    public string FirstProperty { get; init; }
    public string SecondProperty { get; init; }

As you can see, the syntax is very clear and intuitive to use.

More details about new C# 9.0 features can be found here

How to build and provision Azure Cognitive Search service in 20 minutes

This Azure service has been here for a while now, but lately got a few improvements which make the integration and use of it even easier and seamless than before.

Just before going any further, if you haven’t read anything about it, I recommend you to start with this article first as I am not going to dive too much into the details today. This reading is going to be about my personal experience of getting Cognitive Search service provisioned with a bunch of data (of one source) connected to it.

Personally, I like to look at the problems to solve with my business lense. What that means is that focusing on building a content (business value) rather than building the search engine (feature). I am not saying that compromising (non-business related) system features which are helping users to enhance their User system Experience is a good thing to do. All I am saying is stop re-inventing the wheel!

Hey Devs, don’t give me this wiggle face saying things like: “c’mon, it’s not that hard to do it by yourself!”. Yes, but actually it is hard from the time complexity point of view … To build a great search engine with features your audience is going to like would take many weeks of man/hours to do so. These features including Auto-completion, geospatial search, filtering, and faceting capabilities for a rich UX, OCR (ideally backed by AI), key phrase extraction, image text found results highlighting and all of that with ability to scale this service as needed and add as many multiple (and different) data sources as needed.

Can you see my point, now? Did one of your eyebrow just lift up? :)) Anyway .. let’s jump into it and see how long this is going to take me to build in Azure portal.

Steps how to build a first Cognitive Search as a Service

1) Go to Azure portal, search for Cognitive Services and add new one called “Azure Cognitive Search

Adding Azure Cognitive Search to Cognitive Service library in the Azure portal

2) As for all services in Azure space, you need to fill up what Subscription and Resource Group this service will belong to. And as the next step, prefered URL, Geographic location of data centre and pricing Tier. I am choosing the free Tier (should be enough for this exercise) and location close to NZ. The next step is to click on Validate, and on Create button afterwards.

Filling up the service initials

3) The first step in the wizard is “Connect to your data” tab. That means that on this page you can connect to multiple data sources. As you can see from the picture below, quite a few options are available to choose from (and most likely going to cover all of the use case scenarios). For this exercise, I am going to take “Samples” and SQL database. You can add as many data sources as you want (with the respect on limitations of the selected service Tier type).

Adding a connection to the data source

4) At “Add cognitive skills” tab I decided to add a bunch of additional Text Cognitive Skills, even though this step is optional. My reasons are purely investigative and I would like to see how the @search.score field in returning data result sets is going to look like when trying to search my documents by any of these fields from Enriched data set.

Adding extra source fields for cognitive skills run

5) In the next step “Customize target index” (sometimes referred to as a “pull model“) I am going to leave all pre-populated settings as they are as I am happy with it for now. In this step you can configure things like the level of data exposure, data field types, filtering, sorting, etc.

Just to give you a better understanding of what the search index is in this context – think about it as in relational database a search index equates to a table. And also we have documents, which are the items of the index. Think about them as documents are roughly equivalent to rows in a table.

Also, remember to keep a Key field in Edm.String data type. This is a mandatory prerequisite.

Customizing the target indexes

6) In “Create an Indexer” tab (the way how to index data in a scheduled manner) I am not allowed to configure how often should be mapping table (index) build. Reason for it is that the Sample SQL database I am using in this exercise does not use any Change tracking policies (for example  SQL Integrated Change Tracking Policy). Why is needed? Well, basically Cognitive search needs to know when the data delete change happened to address that. You can read more about it here.

For now, I am going to submit this form and moving on.

The service starts provisioning itself (this should not take long to finish) and after a couple of minutes, I should have everything ready for testing.

Create an indexer tab

Testing the Search Service

Now, let’s have a look at “Search explorer” from service level main top menu and craft some data queries. My first query was “Bacheor-Wohnung” word, which nicely got populated into the URL query as value of &search element by itself…

Data result set from an example query

From now on it is all about to know how to use a query syntax (and you can really go hard on this). For more search query examples visit this MS documentation

I have to say that building this service did take me about 20 minutes (for someone who has some experience already) from having nothing to easy-to-configure and scale search engine. Anyone should be able to build the first Cognitive search service by a similar time after reading this post now.

If there are any questions or want to know more about this service, visit this site built by Microsoft at These people did a really great job in documenting all of it. This material should help you to elevate your skills onto a more advanced level.

What is the Azure Cognitive Search Tiers pricing

Storage50 MB2 GB25 GB
(max 300 GB per service)
100 GB
(max 1 TB per service)
200 GB
(max 2 TB per service)
1 TB
(max 12 TB per service)
2 TB
(max 24 TB per service)
Max indexes per service31550200200 or 1000/partition in high density1 mode1010
Scale out limitsN/AUp to 3 units per service
(max 1 partition; max 3 replicas)
Up to 36 units per service
(max 12 partition; max 12 replicas)
Up to 36 units per service
(max 12 partition; max 12 replicas)
Up to 36 units per service
(max 12 partition; max 12 replicas)
up to 12 replicas in high density1 mode
Up to 36 units per service
(max 12 partition; max 12 replicas)
Up to 36 units per service
(max 12 partition; max 12 replicas)
up to 12 replicas in high density1 mode
Document Cracking: Image ExtractionN/A
(only 20 documents supported)
(price per 1,000 images)
0-1M images – $1.512
1M-5M images – $1.210
5M+ images – $0.983
(price per 1,000 images)
0-1M images – $1.512
1M-5M images – $1.210
5M+ images – $0.983
(price per 1,000 images)
0-1M images – $1.512
1M-5M images – $1.210
5M+ images – $0.983
(price per 1,000 images)
0-1M images – $1.512
1M-5M images – $1.210
5M+ images – $0.983
(price per 1,000 images)
0-1M images – $1.512
1M-5M images – $1.210
5M+ images – $0.983
(price per 1,000 images)
0-1M images – $1.512
1M-5M images – $1.210
5M+ images – $0.983
Private Endpoints Related ChargesN/AAdditional charges may apply2Additional charges may apply2Additional charges may apply2Additional charges may apply2Additional charges may apply2Additional charges may apply2
Price per unitFree$0.153/hour$0.509/hour$2.033/hour$4.065/hour$5.805/hourN/A
Azure Cognitive Search Tiers pricing

Overall Azure service rating

  • it is very easy to create own search SaaS in couple of minutes
  • intuitive way how to integrate new data sources to the service
  • easy to leverage cognitive capabilities in features like OCR
  • CONVENIENCE – zero coding required on service side, all search service settings can be configured in Azure portal
5/5 Rambo rating

Why every Software Developer should learn these 3 languages

We are living in a very fast and dynamic world now. The days when software developer could have just a narrow set of skillset are gone and in order to “do good” on the market, everyone must adopt.

It does not have to be a radial adaptation process (phew!) but having a reasonable good knowledge about certain development languages, patterns, frameworks and “way of doing stuff” ala trends is the must.

That is why YOU as a software developer should know these languages at least an intermediate level to be able to code some basics without googling.

Alright, enough of initial sauce of words, let’s get into these three languages according to 2020 Dev survey.

Must languages to learn


1. Believe it or not, the best option for you is Python. I am not going to write what this language is in detail but in brief, this interpreted and high-level and generic-purpose language has become integrated into almost any type of solution you can think of (cross-platform). Well, that is not surprising to me as been with us for almost 3 decades now (1991). What is more interesting in it is the actual philosophy which stands on these points:

  • Beautiful is better than ugly
  • Explicit is better than implicit
  • Simple is better than complex
  • Complex is better than complicated
  • Readability counts

You can read more about the language here
You can get yourself quickly into it by looking at this repo (my recommendation)


2. Honestly, I am surprised that JavaScript made it to second place (and not to the top). I personally think that this multiparadigm language has a lot of potential for the future and so every developer should learn it.

Read more about JavaScript here
My recommendation howto get started is to follow this sites:

Go (Golang)

3. And probably my favourite one over these two is Go (Golang). Not because of my experience (just started to learn this) but because of what is capable of in very short time (hey I am C# dev, I know what I am talking about!). This would not be my surprise if Go makes its way to the top of the ladder in the next 3 years.

Read more about it here
And after that go and install Go on your desktop, and hit this page of how to get started

Used data source

Survey conducted by 65k of tech geeks

For more information have a look at this page

Just remember, that data has been collected from an active society contributing to Stackoverflow. That means that these results do not EXACTLY reflect the market situation globally nor in your region. Always do your homework and look at the different data sources, related to the place you live (and going to be for the next 5 years).

New Zealenders this does not apply for you. You cannot go wrong with these three ones. Just for reference, NZ based company Rocket Lab is constatly hiring Software Engineers with Golang experience

Overall Stackoverflow survey rating

  • it’s great to have an actual IT pros attending in this survey
  • Stack overflow holds a big audience
  • in my opinion, data were collected from younger generation as oppose to older and so segregated datasets might not be in required balance for reports
3/5 Rambo rating